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Title: Sole marks in storm beds from a glacially influenced Late Palaeozoic shallow sea, Talchir Formation, Talchir Basin, India
Authors: Bhattacharya H.N.
Bhattacharya, Biplab
Published in: Indian Journal of Geosciences
Abstract: Gutter casts on sandstone bedding undersurfaces of storm-laid sandstone-mudstone heterolithic facies within the Talchir Formation (Permo-Carboniferous), Talchir Basin, India, are oriented perpendicular to the wave ripple crest lines, and are commonly associated with flute casts and different tool marks. Three distinct sets of tool marks are identified based on their mutual orientation with the gutter axis. Type-1 tool marks include gutter-parallel fine groove marks, oriented perpendicular to major wave ripple crest lines. Type-2 tool marks are represented by an association of straight, parallel, sinuous, cross-cutting, recurved and turnabout groove marks, along with bi-directional prod marks, bounce marks, brush marks and chevron marks, which are oriented sub-parallel to the major gutter axis. Type-3 tool marks, dominated by shorter groove marks with a few prod marks, are distinctly gutter-normal and thus, trend sub-parallel to the wave ripple crests. Sole marks trending sub-parallel to wave ripple crests were formed by shore-parallel geostrophic flow in initial storm phases. During intensification of storms, oscillation-dominated shore-normal currents produced gutters, grooves and bipolar-bimodal prod marks and bounce marks at nearly perpendicular or at high angle to the axis of major wave ripple crests. Superposition of shorenormal oscillatory flow on shore-parallel geostrophic currents during peak storms is evident from curvilinear, cross-cutting (and converging) and turnabout groove marks. Hydrodynamic interpretation of these sole marks, interrelationship between palaeogeographic constraints governing the overall sediment dispersal pattern, and the stratification architecture in storm event beds signify complex interplay of mutually perpendicular shore-parallel and shore-normal components of storm current in shallow marine settings.
Citation: Indian Journal of Geosciences (2011), 65(3): 175-188
Issue Date: 2011
Keywords: Ice-marginal sea
Late palaeozoic
Sole marks
Storm sedimentation
Talchir basin
Talchir formation
ISSN: 22293574
Author Scopus IDs: 6701313623
Author Affiliations: Bhattacharya, H.N., Department of Geology, Presidency University, 86/1, College Street, Kolkata-700073, India
Bhattacharya, B., Department of Geology, Hooghly Mohsin College, Chinsurah, Hooghly-712101, West Bengal, India
Corresponding Author: Bhattacharya, H.N.; Department of Geology, Presidency University, 86/1, College Street, Kolkata-700073, India; email:
Appears in Collections:Journal Publications [ES]

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