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Title: Blind reliable invisible watermarking method in wavelet domain for face image watermark
Authors: Agarwal H.
Raman, Balasubramanian
Venkat I.
Published in: Multimedia Tools and Applications
Abstract: In this paper, we have combined watermarking and biometrics for possible improvement in owner identification/verification technology. We have proposed and compared wavelet based four blind invisible watermarking methods that have used face image as watermark. Two watermarking methods are based on the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and rest two watermarking methods are based on the redundant discrete wavelet transform (RDWT). One watermarking method in each transform incorporates weighted binary coding to achieve improved reliability of extracted watermark. Other watermarking methods replace original image coefficients with face image coefficients. We have observed that DWT based watermarking methods outperform RDWT based watermarking methods. We have compared the robustness of the proposed watermarking methods against various common image processing attacks/operations. We have observed that DWT based watermarking method coupled with weighted binary coding has the best performance without attacks; peak signal to noise ratio value of watermarked image is greater than 50 dB and normalized correlation coefficient value of extracted watermark is 1 at the watermark embedding strength of 1. Moreover, the same watermarking method has the best robustness against most of the attacks. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York.
Citation: Multimedia Tools and Applications (2015), 74(17): 6897-6935
Issue Date: 2015
Publisher: Springer New York LLC
Keywords: Biometrics
Discrete wavelet transform (DWT)
Normalized correlation coefficient (NC)
Peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR)
Redundant discrete wavelet transform (RDWT)
ISSN: 13807501
Author Scopus IDs: 55371838100
Author Affiliations: Agarwal, H., Department of Mathematics, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee, 247667, India
Raman, B., Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee, 247667, India
Venkat, I., School of Computer Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia
Funding Details: One of the authors, Himanshu Agarwal, acknowledges the University Grants Commission (UGC), of New Delhi, India for granting him a scholarship under the JRF scheme for his research.
Corresponding Author: Agarwal, H.; Department of Mathematics, Indian Institute of Technology RoorkeeIndia; email:
Appears in Collections:Journal Publications [CS]

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