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Title: Presence of fluoroquinolone resistance with persistent occurrence of gyrA gene mutations in a municipal wastewater treatment plant in India
Authors: Kurasam J.
Sihag P.
Mandal, Prabhat Kumar
Sarkar, Sudipta
Published in: Chemosphere
Abstract: Municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) have been cited as the reservoirs of antibiotic resistance, as they provide suitable conditions for the selection of antibiotic resistant bacteria over the antibiotic-sensitive ones. This study is an attempt to investigate the occurrence of fluoroquinolone (FQ) antibiotics, FQ-resistant bacteria in a WWTP located in India. The results indicated that the concentrations of FQ resistant bacteria ranged from 5.10 × 103 to 5.76 × 103 CFU/mL in the influent stream and 2.66 × 102 to 4 × 102 CFU/mL in the effluent stream. An increase in the fraction of FQ resistant bacteria over the total bacteria is observed at the bio-outlet indicating there is a selection pressure within the biological treatment unit of the treatment plant. The mean concentrations of the FQ antibiotics, namely ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin and ofloxacin in the influent ranged from 6 to 16.4 ?g/L with 60–90% of removal in the biological treatment unit. Chlorine-based disinfection process was able to eliminate 96% of the FQ-resistant bacteria from the treated water being discharged into the river Ganges. However, the risk of horizontal gene transformation of resistance was found to be negligible as the resistant mutations occurred at Quinolone resistant determining region (QRDR) of Gyrase A gene. It is observed that 75% of the isolated bacteria showed two point mutations at S83L and D87N positions of the QRDR region of gyrA gene. © 2018 Elsevier Ltd
Citation: Chemosphere(2018), 211(): 817-825
Issue Date: 2018
Publisher: Elsevier Ltd
Keywords: Antibiotic resistance
Biological wastewater treatment
gyrA gene mutations
Municipal wastewater treatment plant
ISSN: 456535
Author Scopus IDs: 57203858400
Author Affiliations: Kurasam, J., Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee, Uttarakhand 247667, India
Sihag, P., Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee, Uttarakhand 247667, India
Mandal, P.K., D
Funding Details: One of the authors, Kurasam gratefully acknowledges the scholarship received from Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India during her PhD work related to this research.
Corresponding Author: Sarkar, S.; Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology RoorkeeIndia; email:
Appears in Collections:Journal Publications [BT]
Journal Publications [CE]

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