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Title: Alkaline Earth (Ca, Mg) and Transition (La, Y) Metals Promotional Effects on Zn–Al Catalysts During Diethyl Carbonate Synthesis from Ethyl Carbamate and Ethanol
Authors: Shukla K.
Srivastava V.C.
Published in: Catalysis Letters
Abstract: Diethyl carbonate, an important member in the family of organic carbonates, is a fuel additive like dimethyl carbonate (DMC). It holds an extra edge of having better gasoline/water distribution coefficient than DMC, and also DEC is widely used as an electrolyte in lithium ion batteries. Ethanolysis of ethyl carbamate (EC) is the most economical and greener route for DEC synthesis. Zn–Al–M (M=Ca, La, Mg and Y) have been synthesized using two methods and their activity have been explored DEC systhesis from EC and ethanol. The catalysts were characterized using thermogravimetric analysis, Brunauer, Emmett and Teller surface area, N2 adsorption–desorption textural analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, temperature-programmed desorption (TPD), atomic-force microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Pure metal oxides were observed during the XRD analysis and Al2O3 was found to be in amorphous form. Third metal oxide prepared from impregnation method was found to be present on the surface as well as in impregnated form. CO2-TPD analysis showed close correlation between the basicity and the DEC yield. Zn–Al–Mg, prepared from precipitation method, being most basic, was found to be most effective although the performances of Zn–Al–Ca and Zn–Al–La were good. The effect of precipitants was also studied by synthesizing Zn–Al–Mg using NaOH and liquid NH3 as precipitants. DEC yield of 40.2% and turn over frequency of 1055 mgDEC gcat?1 h?1 was obtained in 5 h at 190 °C using Zn–Al–Mg prepared from precipitation method. Effect of reaction conditions was also studied and equilibrium constant of the reaction was estimated using the Benson group contribution method. Graphical Abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.]. © 2017, Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.
Citation: Catalysis Letters (2017), 147(8): 1891-1902
Issue Date: 2017
Publisher: Springer New York LLC
Keywords: Catalysts
Diethyl carbonate
Ethyl carbamate
Synthesis methods
ISSN: 1011372X
Author Scopus IDs: 57188985875
Author Affiliations: Shukla, K., Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee, Uttarakhand 247667, India
Srivastava, V.C., Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee, Uttarakhand 247667, India
Corresponding Author: Shukla, K.; Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology RoorkeeIndia; email:
Appears in Collections:Journal Publications [CH]

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