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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://repository.iitr.ac.in/handle/123456789/26809
Title: Ecosystem studies on upper region of Ganga River, India
Authors: Joshi, Himanshu
Shishodia S.K.
Kumar S.N.
Saikia D.K.
Nauriyal B.P.
Mathur R.P.
Pande P.K.
Mathur B.S.
Puri N.
Published in: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Abstract: A multi-disciplinary research programme on the Ganga River Ecosystem was launched by the Government of India in 1983 to collect information on its attributes. Monitoring of the initial 509 km unpolluted and unmonitored region of the river falling in partly mountainous and partly upper plain stretches for two years revealed good water quality. The Song River (a tributary) catchment, a victim of extensive mining activity in the past, was found to add maximum mineral load. The Bhagirathi River was found to carry maximum suspended solid load. Organic pollution was low throughout, occasionally showing seasonal and local peaks. The river exhibited a high oxidative state with pH falling in a slightly alkaline range and nutrient levels being very low. Diatoms formed a major part of the encountered genera of phytoplankton. Zooplankton were mainly represented by protozoans. Saprophytic bacteria underwent large spatial and temporal fluctuations. Coliforms exhibited an increasing trend with downstream river distance. The source of pollution could not be specifically characterized from an FC/FS ratio. Only one sample tested positive for enteric virus. The forms of benthic macroinvertebrates indicated a clean stream environment. It was observed that diversity indices, together with evenness and community comparison, could provide a promising approach to determine the state of the community. Eight heavy metals investigated, Cu, Zn, Fe, Cd, Mn, Pb, Ni and Co, were found to be present in the river water and bed sediments. The prominent mode of metal transport was found to be via the suspended load. The concentration of dissolved metals was found within WHO permissible limits. The heavy metal status of the Ganga River was compared with other rivers of the world. Sorptive properties of sediments were found to be similar to the general sorptive behaviour of the clays. Laboratory studies exhibited reasonable short t90 values for coliform survival in Ganga water. Faecal streptococcus survived longer. © 1995 Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Citation: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 35(3): 181-206
URI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00547631
http://repository.iitr.ac.in/handle/123456789/26809
Issue Date: 1995
Publisher: Kluwer Academic Publishers
Keywords: bacteria
coliform
diatom
heavy metal
protozoa
water quality
developing country
ecosystem
heavy metals
human impact
mineral load
phytoplankton
pollution monitoring
river pollution
river water quality
zooplankton
India, Uttar Pradesh, Ganga River
India, Uttar Pradesh, Song River
India, Ganges River
cadmium
cobalt
copper
heavy metal
iron
lead
manganese
mineral
nickel
organic matter
river water
zinc
article
bacterium
clay
coliform bacterium
diatom
ecosystem
enteric virus
environmental monitoring
geographic distribution
india
invertebrate
mining
nonhuman
nutrient
oxidation
ph
phytoplankton
pollution transport
protozoon
river
seasonal variation
sediment
streptococcus
water pollution
water quality
zooplankton
Bacillariophyta
Bacteria (microorganisms)
Invertebrata
Protozoa
Streptococcus
ISSN: 1676369
Author Scopus IDs: 7103239839
36951741600
57202479556
57197314788
6507356875
55165712800
7004750869
37075287800
7004975425
Author Affiliations: Joshi, H., Department of Hydrology, University of Roorkee, Roorkee, 247667, India
Shishodia, S.K., Department of Hydrology, University of Roorkee, Roorkee, 247667, India
Kumar, S.N., Department of Hydrology, University of Roorkee, Roorkee, 247667, India
Saikia, D.K., Department of Hydrology, University of Roorkee, Roorkee, 247667, India
Nauriyal, B.P., Department of Hydrology, University of Roorkee, Roorkee, 247667, India
Mathur, R.P., Department of Hydrology, University of Roorkee, Roorkee, 247667, India
Pande, P.K., Department of Hydrology, University of Roorkee, Roorkee, 247667, India
Mathur, B.S., Department of Hydrology, University of Roorkee, Roorkee, 247667, India
Puri, N., Department of Hydrology, University of Roorkee, Roorkee, 247667, India
Corresponding Author: Joshi, H.; Department of Hydrology, , Roorkee, 247667, India
Appears in Collections:Journal Publications [HY]

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