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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://repository.iitr.ac.in/handle/123456789/2670
Title: Electro-chemical mineralization of recalcitrant indole by platinum-coated titanium electrode: multi-response optimization, mechanistic and sludge disposal study
Authors: Hiwarkar A.D.
Singh S.
Srivastava V.C.
Thakur C.
Mall I.D.
Lo S.-L.
Published in: International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology
Abstract: Indole is a highly recalcitrant aromatic heterocyclic organic compound consisting of a five-membered nitrogen-containing pyrrole ring fused to a six-membered benzene ring. This study presents the results of the electro-chemical mineralization of indole in an aqueous solution using platinum-coated titanium (Pt/Ti) electrode. A central composite design was used to investigate the effect of four parameters namely initial pH (pHo), current density (j), conductivity (k) and treatment time (t) at 5 levels. Multiple responses namely chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal (Y1) and specific energy consumption (Y2) were simultaneously maximized and minimized, respectively, by optimizing the parameters affecting the mineralization of indole by using the desirability function approach. At the operating conditions of pH 8.6, j = 161 A/m2, k = 6.7 mS/cm and t = 150 min, 83.8% COD removal with specific energy consumption of 36.3 kWh/kg of COD removed was observed. Ultra performance liquid chromatography, UV–visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry of the indole solution were performed at the optimum condition of the treatment so as to report a plausible mechanism of indole degradation. Field emission scanning electron microscopy analysis of electrodes before and after treatment was performed for determining the changes on anode surface during the treatment. Thermal analysis of the solid residue (scum) obtained was also performed for exploring its disposal prospects. Present study shows that electro-chemical oxidation can be used for mineralization of nitrogenous heterocyclic compounds such as indole. © 2017, Islamic Azad University (IAU).
Citation: International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology (2018), 15(2): 349-360
URI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13762-017-1391-2
http://repository.iitr.ac.in/handle/123456789/2670
Issue Date: 2018
Publisher: Center for Environmental and Energy Research and Studies
Keywords: COD removal
Electro-chemical treatment
Multiple-response optimization
Specific energy consumption
ISSN: 17351472
Author Scopus IDs: 56362746800
57192784617
35565811700
25648521900
55664368900
7401542147
Author Affiliations: Hiwarkar, A.D., Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, Roorkee, Uttarakhand 247667, India, Department of Chemical Engineering, Bundelkhand Institute of Engineering and Technology, Jhansi, Uttar Pradesh 284128, India
Singh, S., Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, Roorkee, Uttarakhand 247667, India, Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, 71, Chou-Shan Rd, Taipei, 106, Taiwan
Srivastava, V.C., Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, Roorkee, Uttarakhand 247667, India
Thakur, C., Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, Roorkee, Uttarakhand 247667, India, Department of Chemical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Raipur, Chhattisgarh 492010, India
Mall, I.D., Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, Roorkee, Uttarakhand 247667, India, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Petroleum and Energy Studies, Dehradun, Uttarakhand 248007, India
Lo, S.-L., Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, 71, Chou-Shan Rd, Taipei, 106, Taiwan
Corresponding Author: Srivastava, V.C.; Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, RoorkeeIndia; email: vimalcsr@yahoo.co.in
Appears in Collections:Journal Publications [CH]

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