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Title: Migration of the Ganga River and development of cliffs in the Varanasi region, India during the late Quaternary: Role of active tectonics
Authors: Shukla U.K.
Srivastava, P.
Singh I.B.
Published in: Geomorphology
Abstract: The lithofacies constitution of unconsolidated sediments exposed in Ramnagar cliff indicates sedimentation in sinuous channels, associated flood plain areas and ponds that were developed within the Ganga River valley. The Khadar surface represents a raised river valley terrace into which the main river channel along with its narrow floodplain is incised. Ramnagar cliff section has revealed a variety of deformation structures that indicate repeated tectonic activity in the area. Important tectonic features exposed by the cliff section are reverse faults, folds, cracks filled with sparry calcite and soft sediment structures indicating liquefaction of sediments affected by faulting and folding. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating of sediments and field relationships of tectonic elements indicate that the Ganga River migrated near to Varanasi 40. ka following a tectonic event in the area. Since then, it meandered freely within its valley until 7. ka when another tectonic event took place and Ramnagar cliff was raised to its present heights. The cliff surface was degraded by gulling activity for about 4000. years before it was occupied by man at around 3000. years. BP. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.
Citation: Geomorphology, 171-172: 101-113
Issue Date: 2012
Keywords: Active tectonics
Channel incision
Fluvial sedimentation
Foreland basin
Ganga River
ISSN: 0169555X
Author Scopus IDs: 7004445893
Author Affiliations: Shukla, U.K., Department of Geology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005, India
Srivastava, P., Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology, 33 GMS Road, Dehradun-248001, India
Singh, I.B., Department of Geology, Lucknow University, Lucknow-226001, India
Funding Details: UKS is thankful to the Head of the Department of Geology, Banaras Hindu University for providing the working facilities. The Director, Wadia Institute of Himalayan is acknowledged for facilitating the fieldwork and encouragement. Thanks are expressed to the Indian National Science Academy (INSA) for providing INSA Senior Scientist position to IBS. Prof. V. Jayaswal, Department of Archaeology, BHU, and his team of coworkers are thankfully acknowledged for providing financial support to excavate a profile for OSL dating. Ms. Rekha Rani and Mr. Omnath Saha are thanked for helping in the field. Banaras Hindu University, BHU
Corresponding Author: Shukla, U.K.; Department of Geology, , Varanasi-221005, India; email:
Appears in Collections:Journal Publications [ES]

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