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dc.contributor.authorGupta P.K.-
dc.contributor.authorYadav, Basant-
dc.contributor.authorYadav, Brijesh K.-
dc.contributor.authorSushkova S.-
dc.contributor.authorBasu S.-
dc.identifier.citationJournal of Environmental Engineering (United States), 147(8)-
dc.description.abstractAn integrated experimental-numerical approach is used in this study to bioremediate a toluene, a nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL), contaminated land site, having varying moisture and temperature levels. The rates of biodegradation in saturated and unsaturated zones under varying soil-moisture (100% to 20%) and temperature (30°C±2°C and 10°C±0.5°C) conditions are obtained by conducting a series of laboratory experiments first. Thereafter, an integrated approach for engineered bioremediation of a characteristic polluted subsurface site is developed considering a system of injection-extraction wells and a HYDRUS three-dimensional (3D) simulator. The injection-extraction wells system is optimally designed to enhance the natural bioremediation rate by having three injection wells and one extraction well to provide additional oxygen supply to the contaminated zone and to contain the NAPL plume in the treatment zone. The pumping rates for injection and extraction wells are optimized using an extreme learning machine-particle swarm optimization-based simulation-optimization approach (ELM-PSO). The results show that the biodegradation rates are high at 30°C for the polluted site having soil moisture content around field capacity. The degradation rate is reduced significantly at a lower temperature of 10°C, particularly when the soil moisture content is kept in the low (40%-20%) range. The designed injection-extraction well system shows that almost similar costs of remediation are required when the soil moisture content is maintained in the range of 60%-80% of the saturation level at a high (30°C) temperature. No substantial change in the time of remediation is observed by changing the soil moisture content between 60% and 80% at this high temperature. However, an elongated time period of treatment observed at a 60% moisture content as compared to the 80% level at a low (10°C) temperature indicates the dominant role of temperature stress as compared with the soil moisture availability. Further, this combination takes about 66% less time in remediating the pollutant concentration to an acceptable level than the time required at the low temperature and moisture content levels. The findings of this study are of direct use in planning remediation strategies for hydrocarbon contaminated sites. © 2021 American Society of Civil Engineers.-
dc.publisherAmerican Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE)-
dc.relation.ispartofJournal of Environmental Engineering (United States)-
dc.subjectEngineered bioremediation-
dc.subjectHYDRUS 3D-
dc.subjectLight nonaqueous phase liquid (LNAPL)-
dc.subjectMoisture content-
dc.titleEngineered Bioremediation of NAPL Polluted Sites: Experimental and Simulation-Optimization Approach under Heterogeneous Moisture and Temperature Conditions-
dc.affiliationGupta, P.K., Dept. of Hydrology, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee, Uttarakhand, 247667, India, Faculty of Environment, Univ. of Waterloo, 200 University Ave. W, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1, Canada-
dc.affiliationYadav, B., Dept. of Water Resources Development and Management, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee, Uttarakhand, 247667, India, Sustainable Northwest, 2701 SE 14th Ave., Portland, OR 97202, United States-
dc.affiliationYadav, B.K., Dept. of Hydrology, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee, Uttarakhand, 247667, India-
dc.affiliationSushkova, S., Southern Federal Univ., 194/1 Stachki Prospect, Rostov-on-Don, 344090, Russian Federation-
dc.affiliationBasu, S., Dept. of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi, Delhi, 110016, India-
dc.description.fundingThe authors are thankful to Prof. Van Genuchten, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, for his support during the HYDRUS simulation and to Prof. Shashi Mathur, IIT Delhi, for his suggestions during the experimental investigations. The first author would also like to thank the University Grant Commission for JRF/SRF. University Grants Commission, UGC-
dc.description.correspondingauthorYadav, B.; Dept. of Water Resources Development and Management, India; email:
Appears in Collections:Journal Publications [HY]
Journal Publications [WR]

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