Skip navigation
Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://repository.iitr.ac.in/handle/123456789/24207
Title: Microwave acid baking of red mud for extraction of titanium and scandium values
Authors: Agrawal S.
Dhawan, Nikhil
Published in: Hydrometallurgy
Abstract: The recovery of valuable metals present in the red mud is investigated through the microwave acid baking–water leaching process. The titanium and scandium dissolution during the leaching stage were optimized using the statistical design of experiments by varying microwave power, exposure time, and acid ratio. Microwave power is the governing factor for heating the mixture during the baking process. The acid ratio and exposure time are influential parameters in the investigated range for metal dissolution. The microwave irradiation synergizes the baking process by generating submicron cracks in the iron(III) sulfate and titanium oxysulfate particles. The SEM-EDS analysis of the baked products revealed that the aluminum(III) sulfate particles have fine morphology, leading to higher aluminum dissolution irrespective of the baking conditions. The linear correlation between the scandium and titanium dissolution suggests that the scandium values are majorly associated with the anatase phase. The microcracks generation in the iron and titanium sulfate particles improves the penetration of water molecules and enhances the scandium dissolution. The optimal baking conditions (600 W, 6 min, 1 mL/g) yielded titanium dissolution of 73.3% and scandium dissolution of 88.4%. The leach residue contains unreacted hematite, anatase, and quartz phases majorly. The material balance indicates that acid baking of 1 kg red mud containing 0.094 kg titanium and 60 g t−1 scandium yielded 0.27 kg residue containing 0.12 kg iron, 0.026 kg titanium, and <10 g t−1 scandium at optimal conditions. The cost analysis of the process depicts the expenditure of ~0.27 $ including 0.11 $ for raw material yielded products possessing a value of ~0.37 $ per kg of red mud. © 2021 Elsevier B.V.
Citation: Hydrometallurgy, 204
URI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hydromet.2021.105704
http://repository.iitr.ac.in/handle/123456789/24207
Issue Date: 2021
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
Keywords: Acid baking
Microwave
Red mud
Scandium
Statistical design
Titanium
ISSN: 0304386X
Author Scopus IDs: 57204356237
25222833400
Author Affiliations: Agrawal, S., Extractive Metallurgy Laboratory, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, IIT-RoorkeeUttarakhand 247667, India
Dhawan, N., Extractive Metallurgy Laboratory, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, IIT-RoorkeeUttarakhand 247667, India
Funding Details: The authors would like to thank the Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee , for providing financial assistance via the Faculty Initiation Grant. Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, IITR
Corresponding Author: Dhawan, N.; Extractive Metallurgy Laboratory, India; email: nikhil.dhawan@mt.iitr.ac.in
Appears in Collections:Journal Publications [MT]

Files in This Item:
There are no files associated with this item.
Show full item record


Items in Repository are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.