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Title: Farmer typology to understand differentiated climate change adaptation in Himalaya
Authors: Shukla R.
Agarwal, Ankit
Gornott C.
Sachdeva K.
Joshi P.K.
Published in: Scientific Reports
Abstract: Smallholder farmers’ responses to the climate-induced agricultural changes are not uniform but rather diverse, as response adaptation strategies are embedded in the heterogonous agronomic, social, economic, and institutional conditions. There is an urgent need to understand the diversity within the farming households, identify the main drivers and understand its relationship with household adaptation strategies. Typology construction provides an efficient method to understand farmer diversity by delineating groups with common characteristics. In the present study, based in the Uttarakhand state of Indian Western Himalayas, five farmer types were identified on the basis of resource endowment and agriculture orientation characteristics. Factor analysis followed by sequential agglomerative hierarchial and K-means clustering was use to delineate farmer types. Examination of adaptation strategies across the identified farmer types revealed that mostly contrasting and type-specific bundle of strategies are adopted by farmers to ensure livelihood security. Our findings show that strategies that incurred high investment, such as infrastructural development, are limited to high resource-endowed farmers. In contrast, the low resourced farmers reported being progressively disengaging with farming as a livelihood option. Our results suggest that the proponents of effective adaptation policies in the Himalayan region need to be cognizant of the nuances within the farming communities to capture the diverse and multiple adaptation needs and constraints of the farming households. © 2019, The Author(s).
Citation: Scientific Reports, 9(1)
Issue Date: 2019
Publisher: Nature Research
Keywords: agricultural worker
climate change
factor analysis
k means clustering
ISSN: 20452322
Author Scopus IDs: 56789533400
Author Affiliations: Shukla, R., Department of Natural Resources, TERI University, New Delhi, 110070, India, Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK), Member of the Leibniz Association, Telegrafenberg, Potsdam, 14476, Germany
Agarwal, A., Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK), Member of the Leibniz Association, Telegrafenberg, Potsdam, 14476, Germany, Department of Hydrology, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, 247667, India, GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Section 4.4: Hydrology, Telegrafenberg, Potsdam, Germany
Gornott, C., Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK), Member of the Leibniz Association, Telegrafenberg, Potsdam, 14476, Germany
Sachdeva, K., Department of Natural Resources, TERI University, New Delhi, 110070, India
Joshi, P.K., Spatial Analysis and Informatics Lab (SAIL), School of Environmental Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, 110067, India, Special Center for Disaster Research, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, 110067, India
Funding Details: Authors gratefully thank the farmers for their precious time and consent to participate in the survey. Authors acknowledge the support of the Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change (MoEFCC), Government of India (GoI) (Project Serial Number: R&D/NNRMS/2/2013–14). We further acknowledge the support of Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) and the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) Open Access Publication Funds at PIK. AA acknowledges the funding support provided by the Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee through Faculty Initiation Grant number IITR/ SRIC/1808/F.IG. The research was supported by the projects H2020_Insurance (EU H2020 program), AgRATI, funded by Climate-KIC (EIT) and EPICC, funded by IKI (BMU). Horizon 2020 Framework Programme, H2020; European Institute of Innovation and Technology, EIT; Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, IITR: IITR/ SRIC/1808/F; Bundesministerium für Wirtschaftliche Zusammenarbeit und Entwicklung, BMZ; Baqai Medical University, BMU; Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change, MoEFCC: R&D/NNRMS/2/2013–14; Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit, GIZ
Corresponding Author: Shukla, R.; Department of Natural Resources, India; email:
Appears in Collections:Journal Publications [HY]

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