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Title: Examining the effects of green revolution led agricultural expansion on net ecosystem service values in India using multiple valuation approaches
Authors: Sannigrahi S.
Pilla F.
Zhang Q.
Chakraborti S.
Wang Y.
Basu B.
Basu A.S.
Joshi P.K.
Keesstra S.
Roy P.S.
Sutton P.C.
Bhatt, Sandeep
Rahmat S.
Jha S.
Singh L.K.
Published in: Journal of Environmental Management
Abstract: Ecosystem Services (ESs) are bundles of natural processes and functions that are essential for human well-being, subsistence, and livelihoods. The ‘Green Revolution’ (GR) has substantial impact on the agricultural landscape and ESs in India. However, the effects of GR on ESs have not been adequately documented and analyzed. This leads to the main hypothesis of this work – ‘the incremental trend of ESs in India is mainly prompted by GR led agricultural innovations that took place during 1960 - 1970’. The analysis was carried out through five successive steps. First, the spatiotemporal Ecosystem Service Values (ESVs) in Billion US$ for 1985, 1995, and 2005 were estimated using several value transfer approaches. Second, the sensitivity and elasticity of different ESs to land conversion were carried out using coefficient of sensitivity and coefficient of elasticity. Third, the Geographically Weighted Regression model was performed using five explanatory factors, i.e., total crop area, crop production, crop yield, net irrigated area, and cropping intensity, to explore the cumulative and individual effects of these driving factors on ESVs. Fourth, Multi-Layer Perceptron based Artificial Neural Network was employed to estimate the normalized importance of these explanatory factors. Fifth, simple and multiple linear regression modeling was done to assess the linear associations between the driving factors and the ESs. During the observation periods, cropland, forestland and water bodies contributed to 80%–90% of ESVs, followed by grassland, mangrove, wetland and urban built-up. In all three evaluation years, the highest estimated ESVs among the nine ES categories was provided by water regulation, followed by soil formation and soil-water retention, biodiversity maintenance, waste treatment, climate regulation, and greenhouse gas regulation. Among the five explanatory factors, total crop area, crop production, and net irrigated area showed strong positive associations with ESVs, while cropping intensity exhibited a negative association. Therefore, the study reveals a strong association between GR led agricultural expansion and ESVs in India. This study suggests that there should be an urgent need for formulation of rigorous ecosystem management strategies and policies to preserve ecological integrity and flow of uninterrupted ESs and to sustain human well-being. © 2020 The Author(s)
Citation: Journal of Environmental Management, 277
Issue Date: 2021
Publisher: Academic Press
Keywords: Ecology
Ecosystem service value
Green revolution
Land use change
Value transfer
ISSN: 3014797
Author Scopus IDs: 57194157685
Author Affiliations: Sannigrahi, S., School of Architecture, Planning and Environmental Policy, University College Dublin, Richview, Clonskeagh, Dublin, D14 E099, Ireland
Pilla, F., School of Architecture, Planning and Environmental Policy, University College Dublin, Richview, Clonskeagh, Dublin, D14 E099, Ireland
Zhang, Q., Frederick S. Pardee Center for the Study of the Longer-Range Future, Frederick S. Pardee School of Global Studies, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215, United States
Chakraborti, S., Center for the Study of Regional Development (CSRD), Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, 110067, India
Wang, Y., School of Public Administration, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan, 430074, China
Basu, B., School of Architecture, Planning and Environmental Policy, University College Dublin, Richview, Clonskeagh, Dublin, D14 E099, Ireland
Basu, A.S., School of Architecture, Planning and Environmental Policy, University College Dublin, Richview, Clonskeagh, Dublin, D14 E099, Ireland
Joshi, P.K., School of Environmental Sciences (SES), Spatial Analysis and Informatics Lab (SAIL), Jawaharlal Nehru University (JNU), New Delhi, 110 067, India
Keesstra, S., Soil, Water and Land-use Team, Wageningen University and Research, Droevendaalsesteeg3, Wageningen, 6708PB, Netherlands, Civil, Surveying and Environmental Engineering, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan2308, Australia
Roy, P.S., Innovation Systems for the Drylands (ISD), ICRISAT, Pathancheru, Hyderabad, 502 324, India
Sutton, P.C., Department of Geography and the Environment, University of Denver, 2050 East Iliff Avenue, Denver, CO 80208-0710, United States
Bhatt, S., Department of Earth Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, 247667, India
Rahmat, S., Department of Architecture and Regional Planning, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, India
Jha, S., Indian Centre for Climate and Societal Impacts Research (ICCSIR), Kachchh, Gujarat 370465, India
Singh, L.K., Agriculture and Food Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur, 721 302, India
Funding Details: The authors express their sincere gratitude to the anonymous reviewers and the Editorial Board for fruitful and constructive comments to enhance the quality of the paper. Qi Zhang is supported by a Microsoft AI for Earth Azure Compute grant. Microsoft
Corresponding Author: Sannigrahi, S.; School of Architecture, Richview, Clonskeagh, Ireland; email:
Appears in Collections:Journal Publications [ES]

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