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Title: Trace-element systematics and isotopic characteristics of sphalerite-pyrite from volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits of Betul belt, central Indian Tectonic Zone: Insight of ore genesis to exploration
Authors: Mishra B.P.
Pati, Pitambar
Dora M.L.
Baswani S.R.
Meshram T.
Shareef M.
Pattanayak R.S.
Suryavanshi H.
Mishra M.
Raza M.A.
Published in: Ore Geology Reviews
Abstract: The Paleoproterozoic volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposits in the Betul belt (BB) (ca.1.7 Ga) in central India are well-known for their low-grade Zn-Cu-Pb sulfide mineralization. The physicochemical conditions of ore formation, size, grade, extent, and nature of mineralization are the ongoing debates and concerns to the exploration agencies for the last two decades. Field examination, drill core analysis, petrography, and scanning electron microscopic studies reveal the occurrence of chalcopyrite, sphalerite, pyrite, galena with minor pyrrhotite in the form of dissemination, stringers, and semi-massive sulfide veins. We present the minor-trace element contents in sphalerite and pyrite from drill core samples of four deposits (Banskhapa, Jangaldehri, Biskhan, and Bhuyari), analyzed by electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA) and in-situ laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (LA-ICP-MS) for determining ore-forming temperature, ore genesis and exploration prospectivity. The EPMA and LA-ICP-MS studies of sphalerite display a slightly high concentration of trace elements like Mn, In with a mean value of 3533 ppm and 33 ppm, respectively. On the other hand, Ga, Ge, and Ag content are low in abundance along with a low concentration of Bi, Pb, and Sb in all four deposits. Pyrites show low Ni and high Co/Ni (mostly > 1) ratios and variable Ti, Se, As, and Mn. Multivariate statistical analysis, especially the principal component analysis (PCA) of these trace elements, defines the geochemical variations among the Betul belt deposits. The ore-forming temperature is estimated using sphalerite thermometry (374 °C to 402 °C) and pyrite thermometry (225 °C to 484 °C). The geochemical discrepancies occur due to magmatic-hydrothermal activities caused by the sub-volcanic intrusions, followed by recrystallization and remobilization of the sub-microscopic inclusions during subsequent metamorphism. Additionally, sulfur isotope analysis provides insights into the sulfur source variations, metals, and mineralization. Carbon and Oxygen isotopes are used to understand the physicochemical conditions of the ore-forming environment. Sphalerite, pyrite, and chalcopyrite from Banskhapa deposit suggest a broad range of δ34S values (7.27–7.79‰, 8.37–8.61‰, and 6.58–6.72‰ respectively, n = 7), which advocate sulfur mostly derived by thermochemical reduction (TSR) of seawater sulfate with some input of magmatic sulfur leaching from the igneous basement. Carbon and oxygen isotope studies of carbonates from Jangaldehri and Bhuyari deposits (δ 13C: −6.0 to −13.45‰ with an average value of −9.51‰, n = 7; δ 18O: 7.32‰ to 20.58‰ with an average value of 15.65‰, n = 7) indicate that the carbonates formed from a hydrothermal fluid (seawater with an insignificant magmatic input), the mixing of hydrothermal fluid with ingressing seawater, or both in the mineralized zone. These processes collectively led to Zn-Cu and Zn-Cu-Pb mineralization in the Betul belt. High temperature, strong isotopic and trace element geochemical variations in sphalerites (Ag-Mn, In/Cd-Mn, In/Cd-Fe, Mn-In/Ge, Fe-In/Ge, Fe-In) and pyrite (Ni-Co, As-Cu, Ag-Au, and Se-Te) attest to the mineralization as being volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposits in Betul belt and differentiated from other genetic types like Mississippi Valley-type (MVT), sedimentary-exhalative (SEDEX), skarn, porphyry, and epithermal hydrothermal deposits. © 2021 Elsevier B.V.
Citation: Ore Geology Reviews, 134
Issue Date: 2021
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
Keywords: Betul Belt
ISSN: 1691368
Author Scopus IDs: 57222872524
Author Affiliations: Mishra, B.P., Department of Earth Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, 247667, India
Pati, P., Department of Earth Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, 247667, India
Dora, M.L., Geological Survey of India, Nagpur, 440006, India
Baswani, S.R., Geological Survey of India, Nagpur, 440006, India
Meshram, T., Geological Survey of India, Nagpur, 440006, India
Shareef, M., Geological Survey of India, Bengaluru, 560070, India
Pattanayak, R.S., Chikiti Mahavidyalaya, Chikiti, 761010, India
Suryavanshi, H., Geological Survey of India, Nagpur, 440006, India
Mishra, M., Geological Survey of India, Faridabad, 121001, India
Raza, M.A., Geological Survey of India, Faridabad, 121001, India
Funding Details: MLD extends sincere thanks to Dr. Ranjit Rath, Director General, and Shri G. Vidyasagar, Head of Department and Addl. Director-General, Geological Survey of India, Nagpur, for their kind inspiration and permission to publish this research article. MLD, thank Shri. Sanjeev Raghav, DDG, and RMH-III, Nagpur, for his continuous encouragement to write this quality manuscript. The Geological Survey of India entirely supported this research work under different Field Season Programme. Acknowledge the Wadia Institute of Himalaya Geology (WIHG), India, for providing a facility for carbon isotope study. The authors extend their sincere thanks, gratitude, and are enormously grateful to Prof. Huayong Chen, the Editor-in-Chief, Ore Geology Reviews, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Guangzhou, China for his kind guidance and valuable suggestions from time to time during the entire review process. Authors extend their sincere thanks to Prof. David Lentz, Canada Associate Editor, Ore Geology Reviews, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada, for his encouragement and kind submissions for improving the quality of the manuscript. The author also thankful to Dr. Stefano Caruso, Associate Editor, Ore Geology Reviews, for his critical suggestions in the previous version. Prof. Xiao-Hua Deng, Beijing Institute of Geology, China; Dr. Russell Bailie, University of the Western Cape, South Africa, and one anonymous reviewer for their thorough and critical reviews and excellent suggestions are instrumental in improving the quality and finalization of a revised manuscript.
Corresponding Author: Dora, M.L.; Geological Survey of India, Central Region, India; email:
Appears in Collections:Journal Publications [ES]

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