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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://repository.iitr.ac.in/handle/123456789/21403
Title: Seasonal analysis of submicron aerosol in Old Delhi using high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometry: Chemical characterisation, source apportionment and new marker identification
Authors: Cash J.M.
Langford B.
Di Marco C.
Mullinger N.J.
Allan J.
Reyes-Villegas E.
Joshi R.
Heal M.R.
Acton W.J.F.
Hewitt C.N.
Misztal P.K.
Drysdale W.
Mandal T.K.
Shivani
Gadi R.
Gurjar, Bhola Ram
Nemitz E.
Published in: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics
Abstract: We present the first real-time composition of submicron particulate matter (PM1) in Old Delhi using high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometry (HR-AMS). Old Delhi is one of the most polluted locations in the world, and PM1 concentrations reached -1/4750μgm-3 during the most polluted period, the post-monsoon period, where PM1 increased by 188% over the pre-monsoon period. Sulfate contributes the largest inorganic PM1 mass fraction during the pre-monsoon (24%) and monsoon (24%) periods, with nitrate contributing most during the post-monsoon period (8%). The organics dominate the mass fraction (54%-68%) throughout the three periods, and, using positive matrix factorisation (PMF) to perform source apportionment analysis of organic mass, two burning-related factors were found to contribute the most (35%) to the post-monsoon increase. The first PMF factor, semi-volatility biomass burning organic aerosol (SVBBOA), shows a high correlation with Earth observation fire counts in surrounding states, which links its origin to crop residue burning. The second is a solid fuel OA (SFOA) factor with links to local open burning due to its high composition of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and novel AMS-measured marker species for polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Two traffic factors were resolved: one hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA) factor and another nitrogen-rich HOA (NHOA) factor. The N compounds within NHOA were mainly nitrile species which have not previously been identified within AMS measurements. Their PAH composition suggests that NHOA is linked to diesel and HOA to compressed natural gas and petrol. These factors combined make the largest relative contribution to primary PM1 mass during the pre-monsoon and monsoon periods while contributing the second highest in the post-monsoon period. A cooking OA (COA) factor shows strong links to the secondary factor, semi-volatility oxygenated OA (SVOOA). Correlations with co-located volatile organic compound (VOC) measurements and AMS-measured organic nitrogen oxides (OrgNO) suggest SVOOA is formed from aged COA. It is also found that a significant increase in chloride concentrations (522%) from pre-monsoon to post-monsoon correlates well with SVBBOA and SFOA, suggesting that crop residue burning and open waste burning are responsible. A reduction in traffic emissions would effectively reduce concentrations across most of the year. In order to reduce the post-monsoon peak, sources such as funeral pyres, solid waste burning and crop residue burning should be considered when developing new air quality policy. © 2021 James M. Cash et al.
Citation: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 21(13): 10133-10158
URI: https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-21-10133-2021
http://repository.iitr.ac.in/handle/123456789/21403
Issue Date: 2021
Publisher: Copernicus GmbH
Keywords: aerosol
biomass burning
concentration (composition)
mass spectrometry
PAH
particulate matter
seasonal variation
source apportionment
Delhi
ISSN: 16807316
Author Scopus IDs: 57191923029
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15758071800
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57192433083
57225179625
7003856595
55889116800
57213512452
55891703200
57205359872
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57212751660
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7003545995
Author Affiliations: Cash, J.M., UK Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Edinburgh Research Station, Penicuik, EH26 0QB, United Kingdom, School of Chemistry, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH9 3FJ, United Kingdom
Langford, B., UK Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Edinburgh Research Station, Penicuik, EH26 0QB, United Kingdom
Di Marco, C., UK Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Edinburgh Research Station, Penicuik, EH26 0QB, United Kingdom
Mullinger, N.J., UK Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Edinburgh Research Station, Penicuik, EH26 0QB, United Kingdom
Allan, J., Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL, United Kingdom
Reyes-Villegas, E., Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL, United Kingdom
Joshi, R., Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL, United Kingdom
Heal, M.R., UK Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Edinburgh Research Station, Penicuik, EH26 0QB, United Kingdom
Acton, W.J.F., Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster, LA1 4YQ, United Kingdom, School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom
Hewitt, C.N., Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster, LA1 4YQ, United Kingdom
Misztal, P.K., UK Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Edinburgh Research Station, Penicuik, EH26 0QB, United Kingdom, Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, United States
Drysdale, W., Wolfson Atmospheric Chemistry Laboratory, University of York, York, YO10 5DD, United Kingdom
Mandal, T.K., Council of Scientific and Industrial Research-National Physical Laboratory (CSIR-NPL), New Delhi, 110012, India
Shivani, Department of Applied Sciences and Humanities, Indira Gandhi Delhi Technical University for Women, Delhi, 110006, India
Gadi, R., Department of Applied Sciences and Humanities, Indira Gandhi Delhi Technical University for Women, Delhi, 110006, India
Gurjar, B.R., Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, India
Nemitz, E., UK Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Edinburgh Research Station, Penicuik, EH26 0QB, United Kingdom
Funding Details: Acknowledgements. This work was supported by UK NERC project DelhiFlux under the Newton Bhabha Fund programme Air Pollution and Human Health in a Developing Megacities (APHH-India), NERC reference numbers NE/P016502/1 and NE/P016472/1. The NERC National Capability award SUNRISE (NE/R000131/1) supported the monsoon measurements, and James M. Cash is supported by a NERC E3 DTP studentship (NE/L002558/1). Tuhin K. Mandal is thankful to the director of CSIR-National Physical Laboratory for allowing us to carry out this research. Authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support provided by the Earth System Science Organization, Ministry of Earth Sciences, Government of India, under the Indo-UK joint collaboration grant no. MoES/16/19/2017-APHH (DelhiFlux) to conduct the research. Author contributions. JMC, BL, CDM, NJM, S and EN made the PM1 measurements using the HR-TOF-AMS. JA and ER measured co-located PM1 using C-TOF-AMS, along with black carbon measurements using the Aethalometer AE-31. RJ and JA measured black carbon using the SP2. WJFA measured VOCs by PTR-QiTOF, supported by BL, CNH and PKM. WD measured CO and NOx using an Aerolaser AL 5002 UVU and a dual-channel high-resolution chemiluminescence instrument. JMC, BL, CDM, JA, MRH and EN contributed to the data interpretation. NJM, TKM, S, RG, BRG and EN provided overall guidance with setup and logistics. EN, BRG, TKM, CNH and JA conceived the overall Delhi-Flux project. All authors contributed to the discussion, writing and editing of the article. NE/P016502/1, NE/R000131/1; Natural Environment Research Council, NERC: NE/L002558/1, NE/P016472/1; Ministry of Earth Sciences, एमओईएस: MoES/16/19/2017-APHH; Earth System Sciences Organization, Ministry of Earth Sciences, ईएसएसओ
Corresponding Author: Cash, J.M.; UK Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, United Kingdom; email: jacash94@ceh.ac.uk Nemitz, E.; UK Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, United Kingdom; email: en@ceh.ac.uk
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