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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://repository.iitr.ac.in/handle/123456789/21401
Title: PM1 composition and source apportionment at two sites in Delhi, India, across multiple seasons
Authors: Reyes-Villegas E.
Panda U.
Darbyshire E.
Cash J.M.
Joshi R.
Langford B.
Di Marco C.F.
Mullinger N.J.
Alam M.S.
Crilley L.R.
Rooney D.J.
Acton W.J.F.
Drysdale W.
Nemitz E.
Flynn M.
Voliotis A.
McFiggans G.
Coe H.
Lee J.
Hewitt C.N.
Heal M.R.
Gunthe S.S.
Mandal T.K.
Gurjar, Bhola Ram
Shivani
Gadi R.
Singh S.
Soni V.
Allan J.D.
Published in: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics
Abstract: Air pollution in urban environments has been shown to have a negative impact on air quality and human health, particularly in megacities. Over recent decades, Delhi, India, has suffered high atmospheric pollution, with significant particulate matter (PM) concentrations as a result of anthropogenic activities. Organic aerosols (OAs) are composed of thousands of different chemical species and are one of the main constituents of submicron particles. However, quantitative knowledge of OA composition, their sources and their processes in urban environments is still limited. This is important particularly in India, as Delhi is a massive, inhomogeneous conurbation, where we would expect the apportionment and concentrations to vary depending on where in Delhi the measurements/source apportionment is performed, indicating the need for multisite measurements. This study presents the first multisite analysis carried out in India over different seasons, with a focus on identifying OA sources. The measurements were taken during 2018 at two sites in Delhi, India. One site was located at the India Meteorological Department, New Delhi (ND). The other site was located at the Indira Gandhi Delhi Technical University for Women, Old Delhi (OD). Non-refractory submicron aerosol (NR-PM1) concentrations (ammonium, nitrate, sulfate, chloride and organic aerosols) of four aerosol mass spectrometers were analysed. Collocated measurements of volatile organic compounds, black carbon, NOx and CO were performed. Positive matrix factorisation (PMF) analysis was performed to separate the organic fraction, identifying a number of conventional factors: hydrocarbon-like OAs (HOAs) related to traffic emissions, biomass burning OAs (BBOAs), cooking OAs (COAs) and secondary OAs (SOAs). A composition-based estimate of PM1 is defined by combining black carbon (BC) and NR-PM1 (C-PM1Combining double low lineg BCg +g NR-PM1). No significant difference was observed in C-PM1 concentrations between sites, OD (142g ±g 117g μgg m-3) compared to ND (123g ±g 71g μgg m3), from post-monsoon measurements. A wider variability was observed between seasons, where pre-monsoon and monsoon showed C-PM1 concentrations lower than 60g μgg m-3. A seasonal variation in C-PM1 composition was observed; SO42- showed a high contribution over pre-monsoon and monsoon seasons, while NO3- and Cl- had a higher contribution in winter and post-monsoon. The main primary aerosol source was from traffic, which is consistent with the PMF analysis and Aethalometer model analysis. Thus, in order to reduce PM1 concentrations in Delhi through local emission controls, traffic emission control offers the greatest opportunity. PMF-aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) mass spectra will help to improve future aerosol source apportionment studies. The information generated in this study increases our understanding of PM1 composition and OA sources in Delhi, India. Furthermore, the scientific findings provide significant information to strengthen legislation that aims to improve air quality in India. © 2021 The Author(s).
Citation: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 21(15): 11655-11667
URI: https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-21-11655-2021
http://repository.iitr.ac.in/handle/123456789/21401
Issue Date: 2021
Publisher: Copernicus GmbH
Keywords: aerosol
air quality
atmospheric pollution
black carbon
carbon monoxide
concentration (composition)
nitrogen oxides
particulate matter
seasonal variation
source apportionment
volatile organic compound
Delhi
ISSN: 16807316
Author Scopus IDs: 57192433083
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Author Affiliations: Reyes-Villegas, E., Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL, United Kingdom
Panda, U., EWRE Division, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai, 600036, India
Darbyshire, E., Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL, United Kingdom, The Conflict and Environment Observatory, Hebden Bridge, HX7 5HZ, United Kingdom
Cash, J.M., UK Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Edinburgh Research Station, Penicuik, EH26 0QB, United Kingdom, School of Chemistry, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH9 3FJ, United Kingdom
Joshi, R., Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL, United Kingdom
Langford, B., UK Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Edinburgh Research Station, Penicuik, EH26 0QB, United Kingdom
Di Marco, C.F., UK Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Edinburgh Research Station, Penicuik, EH26 0QB, United Kingdom
Mullinger, N.J., UK Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Edinburgh Research Station, Penicuik, EH26 0QB, United Kingdom
Alam, M.S., School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT, United Kingdom
Crilley, L.R., School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT, United Kingdom, Department of Chemistry, York University, Toronto, ON, Canada
Rooney, D.J., School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT, United Kingdom
Acton, W.J.F., Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster, LA1 4YQ, United Kingdom
Drysdale, W., Wolfson Atmospheric Chemistry Laboratories, University of York, York, YO10 5DD, United Kingdom
Nemitz, E., UK Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Edinburgh Research Station, Penicuik, EH26 0QB, United Kingdom
Flynn, M., Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL, United Kingdom
Voliotis, A., Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL, United Kingdom
McFiggans, G., Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL, United Kingdom
Coe, H., Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL, United Kingdom
Lee, J., Wolfson Atmospheric Chemistry Laboratories, University of York, York, YO10 5DD, United Kingdom
Hewitt, C.N., Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster, LA1 4YQ, United Kingdom
Heal, M.R., School of Chemistry, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH9 3FJ, United Kingdom
Gunthe, S.S., EWRE Division, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai, 600036, India, Laboratory for Atmospheric and Climate Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai, 600036, India
Mandal, T.K., CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi, 110012, India
Gurjar, B.R., Dept. of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, India
Shivani, Department of Applied Sciences and Humanities, Indira Gandhi Delhi Technical University for Women, Delhi, 110006, India
Gadi, R., Department of Applied Sciences and Humanities, Indira Gandhi Delhi Technical University for Women, Delhi, 110006, India
Singh, S., Ozone Unit, India Meteorology Department, New Delhi, 110003, India
Soni, V., Environmental Monitoring and Research Centre, India Meteorology Department, New Delhi, 110003, India
Allan, J.D., Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL, United Kingdom, National Centre for Atmospheric Science, University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL, United Kingdom
Funding Details: This research has been supported by the UK NERC through the DelhiFlux and PROMOTE projects under the Newton Bhabha Fund programme "Air Pollution and Human Health in a Developing Megacity (APHH-India)", NERC reference numbers NE/P016502/1, NE/P01643X/1, NE/P016472/1 and NE/P016480/1. The monsoon measurements were supported by the NERC National Capability award SUNRISE (NE/R000131/1). James Cash is recipient of a NERC E3 DTP studentship (NE/L002558/1). NE/L002558/1, NE/P01643X/1, NE/P016472/1, NE/P016480/1, NE/P016502/1; Natural Environment Research Council, NERC: NE/R000131/1
Corresponding Author: Mcfiggans, G.; Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, United Kingdom; email: g.mcfiggans@manchester.ac.uk Reyes-Villegas, E.; Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, United Kingdom; email: ernesto.reyesvillegas@manchester.ac.uk
Appears in Collections:Journal Publications [CE]

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