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Title: Influence of Spatial Urbanization on Hydrological Components of the Upper Ganga River Basin, India
Authors: Shukla A.K.
Ojha, C. S. P.
Garg, Rahul D.
Shukla S.
Pal L.
Published in: Journal of Hazardous, Toxic, and Radioactive Waste
Abstract: The waterscape of the Upper Ganga river basin has reconfigured over the last few decades due to rapid population growth, urbanization, and industrialization. It has resulted in altered regional hydrology and water quality of the river basin. In this study, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) hydrological model was used to investigate the effects of spatial urbanization on key hydrological components of the study region. Time series of Land Use and Land Cover (LULC) maps of 1980, 2001, and 2012 were prepared using the object-based image analysis (OBIA) approach. To understand the existing interrelationships between urbanization and key hydrological variables, multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and correlation statistical analyses were carried out between urbanization indicators [spatial urbanization level (U ) and population urbanization level (U )] and hydrological parameters. Results revealed that from 1980 to 2012, an increase in the water yield was observed from 433.6 to 572.7 mm [standard deviation (σ) = 69.8; sum of squares (SS) = 9,740.6], and the annual average surface runoff increased from 80.7 to 149 mm [σ = 34.8; SS = 2,425.4], however, evapotranspiration (ET) decreased from 790.9 to 675 mm [σ = 63.2; SS = 7,986.6] in the river basin, corresponding to an increase in U from 0.36 to 2.07. An increase in urbanization had a high influence on these hydrological parameters.
Citation: Journal of Hazardous, Toxic, and Radioactive Waste(2020), 24(4)
Issue Date: 2020
Publisher: American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE)
Keywords: Land Use Land Cover
Multivariate analysis of variance
Soil and Water Assessment Tool model
Spatial urbanization level
Upper Ganga river basin
Land use
Multivariant analysis
Population statistics
Water quality
Hydrological modeling
Hydrological parameters
Hydrological variables
Land use and land cover
Multivariate analysis of variances
Object based image a
ISSN: 21535493
Author Scopus IDs: 56447884900
Author Affiliations: Shukla, A.K., Civil Engineering Dept., Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, Uttarakhand, 247667, India
Ojha, C.S.P., Civil Engineering Dept., Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, Uttarakhand, 247667, India
Garg, R.D., Civil Engineering Dept., In
Funding Details: Ministry of Education and Human Resources Development, MOEHRD.The authors thankfully acknowledge the infrastructural and financial support provided by the Ministry of Human Resources Development, GoI. The authors are also thankful to the anonymous reviewers for their constructive suggestions to improve the quality o
Corresponding Author: Shukla, A.K.; Civil Engineering Dept., India; email:
Appears in Collections:Journal Publications [CE]

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