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Title: Reversible ion exchange-membrane (RIX-M) process for fouling free and energy efficient desalination of seawater
Authors: Sarkar, Sudipta
Smith R.C.
SenGupta A.K.
Published in: Proceedings of ACS Symposium Series
Abstract: Reversible ion exchange-membrane (RIX-M) is a hybrid process of desalination in which scale formation potentials of seawater can be eliminated by changing the chemistry of the feed water through the introduction of a reversible cation exchange step before the membrane based desalination step. In this process, scale forming di- or other poly-valent cations like calcium, barium, strontium, etc. are exchanged for equivalent concentrations of magnesium ions when the saline water is passed through a bed of cation exchanger pre-saturated in magnesium form. Near-complete replacement of scale forming cations by non-scale forming magnesium ions allows for obtaining a higher permeate flux compared to the conventional RO process. Addition of anti-scaling agent can be avoided altogether. Also, the exchange of magnesium ions for monovalent sodium ions, either partly or fully, reduces the osmotic pressure of the resultant feed solution to the membrane. Thus, the membrane process can operate with high permeate water recovery and enhanced energy efficiency for natural saline water like sea and brackish water and other industrial saline water effluents. The concentrated return from the membrane process is used as a regenerant for the exhausted ion exchanger. Thus, once started, the process can be sustained without requiring any external addition of regenerant chemicals. ¬© 2011 American Chemical Society.
Citation: Proceedings of ACS Symposium Series, (2011), 285- 301
Issue Date: 2011
Publisher: American Chemical Society
Keywords: Desalination
Energy efficiency
Ion exchange
Ion exchangers
Metal ions
Positive ions
Cation exchangers
Cation exchanges
Energy efficient
Equivalent concentrations
Membrane process
Regenerant chemicals
Scale formation
ISBN: 9.78084E+12
ISSN: 976156
Author Scopus IDs: 57201440577
Author Affiliations: Sarkar, S., Fritz Engineering Laboratory, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA 18015, United States
Smith, R.C., Fritz Engineering Laboratory, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Lehigh Univer
Appears in Collections:Conference Publications [CE]

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