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Title: Microstructural and mechanical properties of porous biocomposite scaffolds based on polyvinyl alcohol, nano-hydroxyapatite and cellulose nanocrystals
Authors: Kumar A.
Negi, Yuvraj Singh
Choudhary V.
Bhardwaj N.K.
Published in: Cellulose
Abstract: In this study, in situ synthesis of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/nano-hydroxyapatite (n-HA)/cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) organic-inorganic biocomposite porous scaffolds is reported. The effect of the CNC content on the properties of the biocomposite scaffold was investigated and characterized using field-emission scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, porosity and compressive strength measurements, thermal studies, and in vitro biomineralization and degradation studies. The morphological study showed highly porous structures with good pore interconnectivity in which n-HA was homogeneously dispersed. XRD analysis showed a decrease in the crystalline fraction and crystallite size of nano-hydroxyapatite with introduction of PVA and with increasing content of CNC. It was observed that the porosity decreased to some extent with increasing CNC content, while increases in the compressive strength (from 0.85 to 2.09 MPa) and elastic modulus (from 4.68 to 16.01 MPa) were found as the CNC content was increased. In vitro biomineralization study revealed the formation of apatite on PVA/n-HA/CNC biocomposite scaffolds when soaked for 7 and 14 days in simulated body fluid (SBF) solution. The obtained porous scaffolds offering good mechanical performance may provide a promising alternative scaffolding matrix for use in the field of bone tissue engineering. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.
Citation: Cellulose (2014), 21(5): 3409-3426
Issue Date: 2014
Publisher: Kluwer Academic Publishers
Keywords: Biocomposite scaffolds
Cellulose nanocrystals
Freeze drying
Polyvinyl alcohol
Simulated body fluid
ISSN: 9690239
Author Scopus IDs: 15051826800
Author Affiliations: Kumar, A., Department of Polymer and Process Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee, India
Negi, Y.S., Department of Polymer and Process Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee, India
Choudhary, V., Centre for Polymer Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi, India
Bhardwaj, N.K., Avantha Centre for Industrial Research and Development, Yamuna Nagar, Haryana, India
Funding Details: Acknowledgments The authors are grateful to the Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD), New Delhi for providing financial support to A.K. The authors would also like to acknowledge Dr. Bhupender Singh Butola (Department of Textile Technology, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi) for providing access to the freeze-drying unit (Metrex Scientific Instruments Pvt. Ltd.) and the Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee (IIT Roorkee) for various other infrastructures required for advanced research work in the field of biocomposites.
Corresponding Author: Negi, Y. S.; Department of Polymer and Process Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee, India; email:
Appears in Collections:Journal Publications [PE]

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