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Title: A comprehensive review of renewable energy source on energy optimization of black liquor in MSE using steady and dynamic state modeling, simulation and control
Authors: Verma O.P.
Manik, Gaurav
Sethi S.K.
Published in: Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews
Abstract: Increasing energy demand, high energy cost and global warming issues require energy-intensive industries to make sincere efforts to improve energy efficiency. The energy consumption data available for different industries suggests that pulp and paper industry accounts for a significant share. Amongst various procedures to make paper, Kraft recovery process is majorly employed that yields weak but lignin-rich black liquor as a byproduct. Black liquor is one of the emerging biomass energy resources with a strong potential to be used as a biofuel for generating steam/energy to operate the process units, thereby, ensuring process self-sufficiency and sustainability. A Multi-Stage Evaporator (MSE) is needed to concentrate it but suffers from being the most energy consuming unit among all. This piques our interest to explore various energy reducing schemes or configurations used previously for MSE and to report previous research endeavors in the area of steady–state, dynamic modeling and simulation of such processes. It is noted that steady-state and transient behavior analysis together with an efficient controller design may significantly contribute in eliminating or troubleshooting problems to ensure both energy savings and product quality. The article highlights that such an analysis and effective solutions of developed models, due to their non-linear complex nature, are highly dependent on the nature of the algorithm employed. Attempts to design control techniques to enable efficient process control and to eliminate process uncertainties have suffered limitations not only due to inherent inefficiency of control techniques but also due to insufficient underlying knowledge or inappropriate modeling of system transience. With this perspective in mind, advanced and intelligent control techniques and their influence on process/energy transience and optimization have been reviewed. Here, we propose that it is very essential to maintain sufficient prudence in selecting an appropriate simulation, optimization and control algorithm to ensure a sustainable production. © 2018 Elsevier Ltd
Citation: Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews (2019), 100(): 90-109
Issue Date: 2019
Publisher: Elsevier Ltd
Keywords: Energy optimization
Energy reduction scheme
Interior-point method
Multiple effect evaporator
Steam consumption
Steam economy
ISSN: 13640321
Author Scopus IDs: 56594677400
Author Affiliations: Verma, O.P., Department of Instrumentation and Control Engineering, Dr B R Ambedkar National Institute of Technology Jalandhar, India
Manik, G., Department of Polymer and Process Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, India
Sethi, S.K., Department of Polymer and Process Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, India
Funding Details: First author, Om Prakash Verma would like to thank Ministry of Human Resource Development, New Delhi, India for providing the Research Fellowship for carrying out this work. Also, the authors are thankful to Director of Star Paper Mill, Saharanpur, India for permissions to visit the mill time to time and collect the real-time plant data.
Corresponding Author: Manik, G.; Department of Polymer and Process Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology RoorkeeIndia; email:
Appears in Collections:Journal Publications [PE]

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