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Title: Chandipura Virus Utilizes the Prosurvival Function of RelA NF-?B for Its Propagation
Authors: Bais S.S.
Ratra Y.
Khan N.A.
Pandey R.
Kushawaha P.K.
Tomar, Shailly
Medigeshi G.
Singh A.
Basak S.
Published in: Journal of virology
Abstract: Chandipura virus (CHPV), a cytoplasmic RNA virus, has been implicated in several outbreaks of acute encephalitis in India. Despite the relevance of CHPV to human health, how the virus interacts with the host signaling machinery remains obscure. In response to viral infections, mammalian cells activate RelA/NF-?B heterodimers, which induce genes encoding interferon beta (IFN-?) and other immune mediators. Therefore, RelA is generally considered to be an antiviral transcription factor. However, RelA activates a wide spectrum of genes in physiological settings, and there is a paucity of direct genetic evidence substantiating antiviral RelA functions. Using mouse embryonic fibroblasts, we genetically dissected the role of RelA in CHPV pathogenesis. We found that CHPV indeed activated RelA and that RelA deficiency abrogated the expression of IFN-? in response to virus infections. Unexpectedly, infection of Rela-/- fibroblasts led to a decreased CHPV yield. Our investigation clarified that RelA-dependent synthesis of prosurvival factors restrained infection-inflicted cell death and that exacerbated cell death processes prevented multiplication of CHPV in RelA-deficient cells. Chikungunya virus, a cytopathic RNA virus associated also with epidemics, required RelA, and Japanese encephalitis virus, which produced relatively minor cytopathic effects in fibroblasts, circumvented the need of RelA for their propagation. In sum, we documented a proviral function of the pleiotropic factor RelA linked to its prosurvival properties. RelA promoted the growth of cytopathic RNA viruses by extending the life span of infected cells, which serve as the replicative niche of intracellular pathogens. We argue that our finding bears significance for understanding host-virus interactions and may have implications for antiviral therapeutic regimes.IMPORTANCE RelA/NF-?B participates in a wide spectrum of physiological processes, including shaping immune responses against invading pathogens. In virus-infected cells, RelA typically induces the expression of IFN-?, which restrains viral propagation in neighboring cells involving paracrine mechanisms. Our study suggested that RelA might also play a proviral role. A cell-autonomous RelA activity amplified the yield of Chandipura virus, a cytopathic RNA virus associated with human epidemics, by extending the life span of infected cells. Our finding necessitates a substantial revision of our understanding of host-virus interactions and indicates a dual role of NF-?B signaling during the course of RNA virus infections. Our study also bears significance for therapeutic regimes which alter NF-?B activities while alleviating the viral load. Copyright © 2019 American Society for Microbiology.
Citation: Journal of virology(2019), 93(14): -
Issue Date: 2019
Publisher: NLM (Medline)
Keywords: burst size
cell death
RNA virus
ISSN: 10985514
Author Scopus IDs: 57198443402
Author Affiliations: Bais, S.S., Systems Immunology Laboratory, National Institute of Immunology, New Delhi, India
Ratra, Y., Systems Immunology Laboratory, National Institute of Immunology, New Delhi, India
Khan, N.A., Translational Health Sciences and Technology Institu
Appears in Collections:Journal Publications [BT]

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