Skip navigation
Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://repository.iitr.ac.in/handle/123456789/12717
Title: Effect of Carbon Distribution During the Microstructure Evolution of Dual-Phase Steels Studied Using Cellular Automata, Genetic Algorithms, and Experimental Strategies
Authors: Halder C.
Karmakar A.
Hasan S.M.
Chakrabarti D.
Pietrzyk M.
Chakraborti N.
Published in: Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A: Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science
Abstract: The development of ferrite-martensite dual-phase microstructures by cold-rolling and intercritical annealing of 0.06 wt pct carbon steel was systematically studied using a dilatometer for two different heating rates (1 and 10 K/s). A step quenching treatment has been designed to develop dual-phase structures having a similar martensite fraction for two different heating rates. An increase in heating rate seemed to refine the ferrite grain size, but it increased the size and spacing of the martensitic regions. As a result, the strength of the steel increased with heating rate; however, the formability was affected. It has been concluded that the distribution of C during the annealing treatment of cold-rolled steel determines the size, distribution, and morphology of martensite, which ultimately influences the mechanical properties. Experimental detection of carbon distribution in austenite is difficult during annealing of the cold-rolled steel as the phase transformation occurs at a high temperature and C is an interstitial solute, which diffuses fast at that temperature. Therefore, a cellular automata (CA)-based phase transformation model is proposed in the present study for the prediction of C distribution in austenite during annealing of steel as the function of C content and heating rate. The CA model predicts that the carbon distribution in austenite becomes more inhomogeneous when the heating rate increases. In the CA model, the extent of carbon inhomogeneity is measured using a kernel averaging method for different orders of neighbors, which accounts for the different physical space during calculation. The obtained results reveal that the 10th order (covering 10-µm physical spaces around the cell of interest) is showing the maximum inhomogeneity of carbon and the same effect has been investigated and confirmed using auger electron spectroscopy (AES) for 0.06 wt pct carbon steel. Furthermore, the optimization of carbon homogeneity with respect to heating rate has been performed using a bi-objective genetic programming (BioGP) strategy for the steel composition varying from 0.06 to 0.12 wt pct carbon along with other parameters like average austenite grain size and time of heating as the input variables. The analysis of the results obtained from BioGP suggests that the homogeneity of carbon increases with the increasing carbon concentration of steel. This is corroborated by analyzing the AES results obtained for 0.28 wt pct carbon steel using the same technique as that used for 0.06 wt pct carbon steel. © 2016, The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International.
Citation: Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A: Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science (2016), 47(12): 5890-5906
URI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11661-016-3725-y
http://repository.iitr.ac.in/handle/123456789/12717
Issue Date: 2016
Publisher: Springer Boston
ISSN: 10735623
Author Scopus IDs: 55868341500
55510104200
54995582200
12792743400
7005735035
7007154921
Author Affiliations: Halder, C., Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur, 721 302, India
Karmakar, A., Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur, 721 302, India
Hasan, S.M., Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur, 721 302, India
Chakrabarti, D., Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur, 721 302, India
Pietrzyk, M., Department of Applied Computer Science and Modelling, AGH University of Science and Technology, Mickiewicza 30, Krakow, 30-059, Poland
Chakraborti, N., Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur, 721 302, India
Corresponding Author: Halder, C.; Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology KharagpurIndia; email: chandan.met@gmail.com
Appears in Collections:Journal Publications [MT]

Files in This Item:
There are no files associated with this item.
Show full item record


Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.