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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://repository.iitr.ac.in/handle/123456789/11608
Title: Force production and mechanical accommodation during convergent extension
Authors: Zhou J.
Pal S.
Maiti S.
Davidson L.A.
Published in: Development (Cambridge)
Abstract: Forces generated within the embryo during convergent extension (CE) must overcome mechanical resistance to push the head away from the rear.Asmechanical resistance increasesmore than eightfold duringCE and can vary twofold fromindividual to individual, we have proposed that developmental programs must include mechanical accommodation in order tomaintainrobustmorphogenesis.Totest this ideaandinvestigate the processes that generate forces within early embryos, we developed a novel gel-based sensor to report force production as a tissue changes shape; we find that the mean stress produced by CE is 5.0±1.6 Pascal (Pa). Experiments with the gel-based force sensor resulted in three findings. (1) Force production and mechanical resistance can be coupled through myosin contractility. The coupling of these processes can be hidden unless affected tissues are challenged by physical constraints. (2)CEismechanicallyadaptive; dorsal tissues can increase force production up to threefold to overcome a stiffermicroenvironment. These findings demonstrate that mechanical accommodation can ensure robust morphogenetic movements against environmental and genetic variation thatmight otherwise perturb development and growth. (3) Force production is distributed between neural and mesodermal tissues in the dorsal isolate, and the notochord, a central structure involved in patterning vertebratemorphogenesis, is not required for force production during late gastrulation and early neurulation. Our findings suggest that genetic factors that coordinately alter force production and mechanical resistance are common during morphogenesis, and that their cryptic roles can be revealed when tissues are challenged by controlled biophysical constraints. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
Citation: Development (Cambridge) (2015), 142(4): 692-701
URI: https://doi.org/10.1242/dev.116533
http://repository.iitr.ac.in/handle/123456789/11608
Issue Date: 2015
Publisher: Company of Biologists Ltd
Keywords: Cell and tissue mechanics
Gastrulation
Mechanotransduction
Morphogenesis
Notochord
Rho Kinase
Viscoelasticity
ISSN: 9501991
Author Scopus IDs: 55723310700
35321222100
7202014965
7201394975
Author Affiliations: Zhou, J., Department of Bioengineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, United States, Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200032, China
Pal, S., Department of Bioengineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, United States
Maiti, S., Department of Bioengineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, United States
Davidson, L.A., Department of Bioengineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, United States, Department of Developmental Biology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, United States, Department of Computational and Systems Biology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, 15213, United States
Corresponding Author: Zhou, J.; Department of Bioengineering, University of PittsburghUnited States
Appears in Collections:Journal Publications [ME]

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